Kisah Maritim Nusantara

Pelayaran telah memainkan peran penting dalam sejarah Nusantara. Pada awalnya, VOC datang ke Nusantara dengan kapal layar besar yang memiliki bodi cekung ke dalam. Namun, setelah James Watt menemukan mesin uap, kapal-kapal mulai menggunakan teknologi baru ini. Rempah-rempah di Banda Neira menjadi alasan imperialisme membuka jalur pelayaran ke Nusantara, dan setelah Indonesia dikuasai Belanda, jasa pelayaran diatur oleh KPM (Koningleik Paketvar Matschapai).

Awalnya, KPM melayani 13 rute pelayaran, tetapi setelah UU pelayaran diterbitkan oleh Belanda pada tahun 1936, mereka memonopoli seluruh rute pelayaran di Hindia Belanda. Meskipun KPM berkedudukan di Amsterdam, mereka beroperasi di Hindia Belanda dan menggunakan strategi harga yang lebih murah dari pesaing mereka di Singapura. Selain itu, KPM juga diwajibkan bekerja sama dengan perahu tradisional seperti Phinisi, yang hingga hari ini masih menjadi sarana penyeberangan antar pulau di Indonesia. Salah satu galangan kapal Phinisi yang tersisa ialah di Bulukumba, Sulawesi Selatan, namun mereka sedang menghadapi masalah serius terkait ketersediaan kayu berkualitas.

Sejarawan Sumarsono menunjukkan bahwa pelabuhan-pelabuhan Indonesia berkembang karena pengaruh Belanda, walaupun Surabaya tidak berkembang sebanyak Tuban, Gresik, dan Sedayu. Setelah Indonesia merdeka, jasa pelayaran KPM digantikan oleh Pelni, yang memiliki 114 ruas pelayaran di Indonesia yang tersebar di 94 pelabuhan. Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, pelayaran masih menjadi bagian penting dari kehidupan Indonesia.

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