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Jika saya harus menggambarkan buku ini dalam satu kalimat, maka Jason Hickel dalam the Divide berhasil menelanjangi tatanan ekonomi global yang sangat memihak pada barat (kapitalisme).

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Pertama kali saya menemukan buku ini ketika berselancar di market place Tokopedia di bulan Juni 2022 yang lalu. Saya tidak terlalu memerhatikan banyak detail, ketika membaca prolognya, saya sudah tertarik dan tanpa pikir panjang lalu membelinya.

Barulah ketika sampai ke alamat rumah beberapa hari kemudian, saya terkejut ternyata buku ini belum diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia. Setelah membaca random lembar demi lembar ternyata penulisnya menggunakan bahasa Inggris yang simpel. Tidak terlalu ribet seperti yang kita temukan pada buku teori ekonomi politik lain yang ditulis dengan grammar akademik yang kompleks. Sehingga kalangan awam pun dapat dengan mudah mengerti tiap alur berpikirnya.

Setelah berbulan-bulan sejak awal membelinya saya belum menuntaskan buku setebal 275 halaman ini. Barulah ketika mendapat tugas me-review buku bertemakan ekonomi global dari Bapak Dr. Jamal saya me-refresh kembali semua ingatan dan membaca kilat tiap part yang disajikan dalam buku ini.

Buku The Divide ditulis oleh  Jason Hickel seorang pengajar di London School of Economics (LSE). Jika kita mencermati kontestasi ekonomi politik di kancah global tentu adalah suatu materi yang berat. Namun Jason membawakan materi itu dengan gaya yang berbeda, ia menulis berdasarkan pengalamannya sendiri saat menjadi volunteer di beberapa NGO dan banyak berinteraksi di sektor humanitarian. Paparannya tidak kaku, tidak banyak menggunakan istilah-istilah ekonomi yang rigid serta terminology yang bikin pusing kepala untuk diterjemahkan. Buku ini mudah dipahami berbagai kalangan sebab ia membawakannya dengan gaya story telling yang impresif. Ia bercerita tentang pengalaman-pengalamannya dengan menyelipkan intrik-intrik ekonomi dan politik.

Buku ini menjadi asyik karena ditulis oleh seorang Antropolog. Jason  menyajikan isu ekonomi dan politik dengan gaya inklusif. Mudah  dipahami. Dalam setiap kesempatan menelusuri susunan narasi yang ia bangun, saya menemukan hal-hal yang selama ini belum bisa saya jangkau. Buku ini seolah menyelematkan saya dari kenaifan saya sendiri dalam memahami sebuah kesatuan sistem ekonomi politik yang demikian rapi diorganisir oleh sebagian orang.

Disamping ide dan gagasan otentik yang penulis sajikan, dalam penelaahan ini, Jason menuliskan seluruh tema utama ke dalam empat part.

Part pertama, Jason beranggapan bahwa narasi pengembangan atau pembangunan (SDGs/Sustainable Development Goals) adalah sesuatu yang imajiner. Ia membeberkan skenario yang dilakukan para Negara adidaya dalam menunda rencana pengentasan kemiskinan.

Jika kita membentangkan peta dunia ke bidang datar, maka berdasarkan data dan fakta sejarah akan teradapat dua kekuatan ekonomi dunia. Jason menyebutnya sebagai global north, negara-negara sebelah Utara bumi yang begitu dilimpahi kemakmuran. Mereka adalah Amerika, United Kingdom, Jerman, Perancis dan negara Eropa lainnya, termasuk Australia dan Kanada. Sedangkan pada sisi Selatan (global south) sebagai under develop country terdapat Asia, Amerika Latin dan tentu Afrika.

Selama beberapa dekade kita banyak mendengar dinamika tentang  bagaimana kesenjangan yang terjadi antara negara-negara kaya dan miskin. Jason mendiagnosa terjadinya kesenjangan yang dalam antara  global north dan global south adalah produk langsung dari tatanan  politik dan ekonomi yang telah di warisi ratusan tahun lamanya.

Pada part selanjutnya, dibagian kedua buku ini, Jason membongkar data dan fakta sebagai genealogi dari isu kemiskinan yang menggurita di kawasan Afrika, Asia dan Amerika Latin. Buku ini mengantar kita mengembarai lorong-lorong sejarah hingga ke era kolonialisme yang mengekstrak habis-habisan sumber daya tanah jajahan. Dan dalam tingkatan yang ekstrim, ada banyak upaya dark politics, aksi gerakan politik bawah tanah (kudeta) untuk melengserkan pemimpin negara-negara yang idealis membangun komunitasnya sendiri.

Dalam the Divide, Jason menyusun argumentasinya berdasarkan data dan fakta sejarah. Bagi saya buku ini sangat radikal. Bagaimana tidak, ia memberi perspektif berlawanan tentang  bagaimana kita selama ini memandang kemiskinan yang terjadi secara  global.

Jason banyak menyajikan data-data yang ia pungut dari World Bank dan IMF. Ia mengungkapkan, sejak tahun 1960,  telah terjadi kesenjangan pendapatan. Penduduk di wilayah Utara memiliki  pendapatan tiga kali lipat lebih banyak dari pada mereka negara-negara di  Selatan (Asia).

Saat ini, 4,3 miliar orang atau 60 persen dari populasi dunia  hidup di bawah 5 dolar sehari. Bahkan 1 miliar di antaranya hanya mampu  hidup di bawah 1 dolar per hari. Delapan orang terkaya di dunia menguasai  perekonomian (kekayaan), itu setara dengan separuh jumlah kekayaan  orang-orang miskin di dunia jika digabungkan.

Dalam bukunya, ia menyeret satu pertanyaan besar pada pembaca, mengapa kesenjangan ini terus terjadi? Selama ini kita memahami bahwa kemiskinan adalah  fenomena alamiah yang dapat ditanggulangi dengan kedermawanan  (bantuan). Namun Jason menawarkan kontra argumentasi. Dalam realitas yang ia  temukan, kemiskinan dan kesenjangan adalah masalah politik. Bahwa  kemiskinan/kesenjangan tidak terjadi begitu saja, melainkan ada satu  hegemoni yang dengan sengaja menciptakannya. Singkat kata, kemiskinan itu diciptakan.

Sedangkan pada part ketiga, buku ini membuka mata saya untuk memahami gaya kolonial era modern. Penulis menuturkan bagaimana utang luar negeri mengikat suatu Negara pada kesepakatan-kesepakatan tertentu. Ia mengupas lapis demi lapis model penjarahan abad 21 yang dibungkus dengan regulasi dan tata hukum.

Saya banyak tercengang dengan kejelian dan konstruksi logika yang ia bangun. Ia membedah gejolak sosial dengan pisau analisis yang tajam. Menurutnya, negara miskin akan tetap bahkan selalu miskin karena mereka terintegrasi  ke dalam satu sistem ekonomi global yang tidak setara.

Bantuan dari  negara pendonor terhadap negara-negara miskin hanyalah kamuflase untuk menyembunyikan satu pola  pengerukan sumber daya suatu negara yang menjadi cikal bakal  penyebab kemiskinan dan ketidaksetaraan itu sendiri. Misalnya melalui kesepakatan perdagangan yang curang, penghindaran pajak, perampasan tanah dan pembiayaan atas isu  perubahan iklim.

Tentang realitas bantuan (aid) misalnya, saya semakin tertarik ketika ia  mengisahkan momen ketika berkunjung ke West Bank, Palestina, sopir  yang mengantarnya berhenti di sebuah lembah Jordan, di sana ia berbicara dengan  seorang pemilik peternakan. Di kawasan itu, ia banyak menemukan  sumur-sumur, tempat pengolahan air untuk membantu masyarakat gurun mengakses kebutuhan air. Pada beberapa fasilitas Jason menemukan plang  bertuliskan “This project is a gift from the American People to the  Palestinian People.”

Namun tidak lama kemudian Israel mengokupasi wilayah itu dengan  bantuan militer Amerika. Palestina terusir mereka tidak dapat  memanfaatkan fasilitas air bersih yang telah di siapkan. Israel mengambil  alih fasilitas tersebut  untuk dialirkan ke pemukiman mereka, peternakan  dan lain-lain. Cara satu-satunya bagi warga Palestina ialah dengan membelinya. Dua bulan kemudian UN melakukan voting, ratusan negara  setuju untuk mengembalikan hak tanah tersebut kepada Palestina. Hanya  dua negara yang menolak petisi itu, Israel dan Amerika.

Melalui the Divide, Jason mencoba melacak jejak sistem tersebut mulai  dari ekspedisi Christopher Columbus di tahun 1940 hingga ke sistem  rezim utang internasional saat ini, yang mana telah membuat negara-negara kaya  dapat mengontrol kebijakan politik dan ekonomi suatu negara di seluruh  dunia.

Hal menarik selanjutnya yang saya temukan adalah tentang the hidden power of debt (kekuatan tersembunyi utang). Di sini Jason memberikan  istilah yang sangat berlawanan. Dalam konteks ekonomi global, saya menemukan kalimat yang sangat mengerikan, yakni “you will  die if you pay your debt. The debt cannot be repaid. If we do not repay, the lenders will not die. But  if we do repay, we will die.” Potongan kalimat tersebut sangat menakutkan. Sistem ekonomi global seolah dirancang agar negara-negara miskin tetap merasa bergantung terhadap fasilitas yang diberikan negara kaya.

Ada banyak laporan statistik serta fakta mencengangkan yang dituturkan Jason dalam buku ini. Jason mengelaborasi bahwa pemerintahan negara kaya (global north) menggelontorkan lebih dari 130 miliar dolar  bantuan tiap tahun untuk negara miskin. Namun kenyataanya narasi tersebut (bantuan/aid) adalah suatu kebohongan belaka. Bahkan ia menyebut hal itu untuk  menyembunyikan satu realitas brutal tentang bagaimana ekonomi politik global bekerja.

Lalu ia bercermin pada sejarah, pada masa kolonialisme negara Eropa.  Mereka memperkaya diri melalui, gold, silver, tanah, budak dan tenaga  kerja, yang membuat pendapatan sangat berbeda antara Utara dan Selatan.

Di saat ini, ketika era kolonial runtuh, kita beranggapan perbedaan itu telah  pudar, banyak negara-negara telah sejajar dalam pembangunan, namun  ternyata tidak begitu adanya, bahkan kesenjangan terjadi empat kali lipat lebih lebar. Atas argumentasi itu, Jason memaparkan data dari world bank GDP per Capita dari tahun 1960 – 2017.

Lalu ia mempertanyakan, kenapa ketidaksetaraan itu kian meningkat, padahal banyak negara-negara dengan kedermawanannya rela  menggelontorkan bantuan?. Jawabannya, karena di satu tangan mereka memberi  bantuan, sedangkan di tangan yang lain mereka menguras sumber daya jauh  lebih banyak. Tangan kiri memberi, tangan kanan merampas.

Secara akumulatif, setiap tahun, sekitar 2 triliun dolar dana mengalir dari global north ke global south. Dana itu berupa bantuan, pinjaman, investasi  asing dan lain-lain. Namun, hal yang tidak kita ketahui adalah sekitar 5  triliun dolar mengalir kembali ke negara-negara utara. Itu berarti bahwa  negara utara mengambil keuntungan sekitar 3 triliun dolar per tahun.  Nilainya berkali-kali lipat dari bantuan yang diterima negara-negara  miskin di selatan.

Bagaimana ini bisa terjadi?…

Pertama, shady financial activities; yakni berupa penghindaran pajak, transfer uang  ilegal, pembayaran bunga utang. Kedua melalui international trade rules, peraturan dagang internasional yang  di desain untuk lebih memberi keuntungan kepada negara-negara kaya di  Utara. Ini memungkinkan mereka mengesktrak tenaga kerja dan sumber daya  negara miskin dengan harga yang murah. (Tenaga kerja murah, sumber  daya murah dan harga yang rendah).

Konsekuensinya sangat mengejutkan. Orang-orang di global south berkontribusi  dalam mengirimkan tenaga kerja dan sumber daya dalam sistem ekonomi dunia.  Sedangkan negara miskin (60 persen populasi manusia) hanya menerima 5  persen saja dari keuntungannya. Sisanya mengalir deras ke negara-negara  kaya di wilayah Utara. Terdengar kompleks dan sangat tidak adil.

Biang kerok dari sistem itu adalah power imbalances (ketidak seimbangan kekuasaan). Pada dasarnya negara kaya di Utara (US, Jerman,  UK, Perancis, Kanada, Australia, Jepang dan lainnya) mengendalikan  perdagangan internasional sesuai kepentingan mereka sendiri.

Contohnya ialah WTO (world trade organization) yang berwenang  mengatur regulasi perdagangan internasional. Teknisnya satu negara satu  suara. Namun realitasnya negara kaya mempunyai posisi daya tawar  (bargaining power) yang kuat. Semacam monopoli. Semua negara-negara kaya ini  memiliki kapasitas voting dalam IMF (international monetary funds) dan  World Bank. Di IMF Amerika memiliki 16 persen hak suara dan memiliki  hak veto terhadap semua keputusan. Sedangkan jika negara-negara di  kawasan Selatan digabungkan yang merupakan 85 persen populasi, hanya  memiliki tidak lebih dari 50 persen hak suara.

Negara kaya memanfaatkan kekuasaan ini untuk mencegah negara miskin  menjalankan kebijakan progresif dalam negeri, seperti menentukan tarif dan subsidi untuk mengembangkan industri dalam negerinya.

Ironinya adalah itu merupakan strategi kebijakan yang sama yang digunakan negara  kaya demi meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonominya. Disinilah kecurangan sistemik itu terjadi.

Dalam penelusuran sejarah, Jason menyatakan ini telah terjadi sejak era  kolonial. Negara-negara Selatan sudah di paksa untuk bekerja sebagai  pelayan atau dijadikan bahan baku, budak dan tenaga kerja bagi negara  Utara.

Di tahun 1950an banyak negara-negara terbebas dari kolonialisme, mereka  mengatur kembali tata negaranya sendiri, melakukan reformasi di segala  bidang untuk meningkatkan industri sendiri. Ini bukan kabar baik bagi  negara kaya di Utara, karena mereka kehilangan sumber daya dan tenaga  kerja murah. Mulailah mereka melakukan intervensi di era 1980an.  Melakukan manuver politik untuk mendukung para diktator memegang  kendali pemerintahan sehingga sejalan dengan visi  ekonomi global negara  kaya di Utara.

Meski kesimpulannya sangat menohok, bahwa kolonialisme tidak berakhir, ia hanya berubah bentuk saja, pada akhir bagian, Jason menawarkan solusi revolusioner.  Atas semua problem politis itu the Divide juga membentangkan solusi politis. Jalan keluar dari sistem itu adalah kita harus merubah aturan ekonomi global agar sistemnya  lebih adil pada mayoritas populasi dunia. Misalnya, melakukan demokratisasi terhadap pemerintahan global untuk memberikan hak suara  yang adil terhadap negara-negara miskin. Membatalkan semua utang  sejarah/masa lalu. Mengakhiri transfer uang ilegal dan pencurian sumber  daya.

Membolehkan negara miskin untuk menggunakan subsidi dan tarif  untuk mengembangkan ekonomi mereka sendiri. Mengatur upah minimum  global agar para pekerja dari negara Selatan mendapat jatah dan nilai yang  sama.

Sejatinya, negara miskin tidak butuh bantuan dalam bentuk amal atau materi apapun. Mereka hanya  butuh keadilan.

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